Science Glossary+

Learn more about our thoughtfully curated ingredients that exist in our products.

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Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is a naturally-occuring carotenoid found in certain algae. Astaxanthin is responsible for the pinkish to red-orange color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant.

Adaptogen

An adaptogen is an herb or naturally derived substance that helps the body modulate or “adapt” to stress, supporting a normalizing effect on the body.

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a naturally occurring chemical molecule found in all living cells. ATP is the main energetic currency within cells and necessary for all cells to live and function. ATP is produced in the mitochondria of cells.


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Betaine

Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is an amino acid derivative that occurs naturally in plants. Betaine provides nutrient support to protect against the condition known as fatty liver, and it also promotes the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid that can be a sign of cardiovascular stress if levels are too high. In addition, betaine provides positive support for other metabolic functions associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is the term for a combination of conditions that occur together that increase your risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.


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Ceramosides®

Ceramosides® is a proprietary, highly concentrated, gluten-free phytoceramide extract from wheat (Triticum vulgare) that may be consumed as a dietary supplement or applied topically for improving skin hydration. The unique process involved in making Ceramosides concentrates the skin-friendly lipids, eliminating the gluten-containing proteins, resulting in a gluten-free phytoceramide extract. Ceramosides is a trademark of E.P.I. France.


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Mitochondria

Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) is an organelle, or small organ, within a living cell that is responsible for producing the energy needed to fuel the cell and its function. Mitochondria are often referred to as the “powerhouse” of a cell. Multiple mitochondria are often found in cells, particularly those in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.


N

Nicotinamide Riboside

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a special form of vitamin B3, of which trace amounts can be found naturally in cow’s milk, yeast, and beer. NR is promoted as an anti-aging dietary supplement because it boosts the body’s ability to produce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a naturally occurring coenzyme that fuels many key biological processes, including conversion of food into energy, repairing damaged DNA, and maintaining healthy cellular metabolism.

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), is a naturally occurring chemical cofactor found in all living cells and is an essential component in the metabolic processes of daily life. For example, NAD+ is necessary for the conversion of the dietary nutrients to cellular energy. More specifically, NAD+ is an important transporter of hydrogen and electrons and needed for the mitochondria within each cell to continuously produce energy as adenosyl triphosphate (ATP). NAD+ also plays a primary role as a helper molecule for proteins that regulate other biological activities including, but not limited to, oxidative stress and circadian rhythms. As we get older, our ability to maintain optimal NAD+ levels can decline. As such, finding ways to help maintain optimal NAD+ levels may be a way to help slow the aging process.


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Rhodiola

Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea), also commonly known as rose root, is a perennial flowering plant, native to the Northern and Arctic regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. Rhodiola has a long history of use in traditional herbalism for the treatment of conditions such as anxiety and depression. Rhodiola has been extensively studied in northeastern Europe for over 35 years and is categorized as an adaptogen because of its ability to increase resistance to chemical, biological, and physical stressors.


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SIRT

Sirtuins (SIRT) are a family of proteins that play a role in aging by regulating cellular health. They are responsible for critical biological functions like DNA expression and aspects of aging. SIRT rely heavily on the presence of NAD+. Because SIRT activity is so dependent on NAD+, the two compounds are linked to cellular lifespan, metabolism, and even regulation of inflammation. As NAD+ pools decline naturally during the aging process, SIRT function will decline as well. Consequently, maintaining optimal levels of NAD+ will also help maintain healthy SIRT activity and promote optimal mitochondrial function and may help slow the aging process.


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